The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has moved forward in developing initial regulatory positions on next-generation reactors, and reaffirming the value of its international cooperation efforts.
In support of its December 14th periodic meeting on small modular reactor (SMR) and advanced reactor regulatory reform, the agency has issued two draft papers for which it is soliciting feedback: one on siting considerations, and one on designing containment systems. This is in addition to a December 13 meeting on physical security, for which the NRC issued a draft paper for review in November.
The draft paper on siting considerations tackles an interesting issue—the siting of nuclear reactors next to population centers. The NRC has had “a long standing policy of siting reactors away from densely populated centers,” but this is based on traditional, large light water reactor designs. Even though such reactors are safe, some governments have taken hardline positions as to siting these reactors next to large population centers (e.g., Indian Point). Advanced reactors reopen this issue. The Commission has stated in the past that for next-generation reactors, “siting a reactor closer to a densely populated city than is current NRC practice would pose a very low risk to the populace.” And as reactor designs are starting to take shape and prove themselves even safer than expected, revisiting this policy can open up a lot of new geographic options for advanced reactors. To note, the issue of siting of advanced reactors relates to emergency planning considerations, a topic we have covered recently here. Apart from siting though, all the papers present multiple opportunities for interested parties to comment on developing regulatory issues.
Moving abroad, in this staff paper, the NRC reaffirmed participation with the Halden Reactor Project, located in Norway. The research reactor is managed by the Norwegian Institute for Energy Technology, but operates under the auspices of the Nuclear Energy Agency as a “cooperatively funded international research and development project.” The NRC has a long-standing relationship with Halden and reaffirmed its commitment to it, which includes roughly $1.5 million of funding. The paper explains that international cooperation greatly leverages agency funds, with a 15-1 return on investment through participation in the project.
Although not unexpected here, the NRC’s reaffirmation of international cooperation nonetheless is another indication of the now global nature of the industry, especially for advanced reactors. But the U.S. government can do more to promote international cooperation in nuclear development. Innovation in next-generation nuclear reactors is global, with, for example, URENCO’s U-Battery venture yesterday announcing an agreement with Bruce Power (a Canadian utility). This includes scoping “the potential deployment of micro nuclear reactors across Canada, including Bruce Power being the owner and/or operator of a fleet of U-Battery units.” Other Advanced Reactor global partnerships include TerraPower in China and Lightbridge and Areva, Recently, two Congressmen penned a letter to the Department of Energy expressing serious concern with the slow pace of permitting in relation to nuclear technology cooperation, and recognizing that the slow pace of approvals of nuclear technology exports hinders nuclear commerce and U.S. competitiveness in the field.
Hopefully, the federal government can turn to doing more to promote international cooperation and support. Just yesterday, the Department of Commerce published a notice of an upcoming U.S.-Saudi Arabia nuclear energy roundtable. The goal of the event is “to initiate a partnership process between U.S. civil nuclear energy companies and the King Abdullah City for Atomic and Renewable Energy (K.A.CARE), and between the U.S. and [Saudi] civil nuclear industries.” It presents a promising opportunity for the U.S. to regain a dominant role in new nuclear construction, as Saudi Arabia is pushing forward with an effort to develop almost 18 GW of new nuclear in the country by the mid-2030s.
For more on the recent NRC publications on regulatory reform, or recent international attention to nuclear energy, please contact the authors.